A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage, which exists in some countries, and takes place between primary school and high school. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, and sometimes within, countries.
Historically, in the United States, local public control (and private alternatives) have allowed for some variation in the organization of schools. Elementary school includes kindergarten through third grade, fourth grade, fifth grade, or sixth grade. In some school districts, Intermediate School includes Fourth grade, Fifth Grade, or Sixth Grade. In some intermediate schools, it starts in 4th or 5th. Basic subjects are taught in elementary school, and students often remain in one classroom throughout the school day, except for physical education, library, music, and art classes. There were in 2001 about 3.6 million children in each grade in the United States. “Middle school” or “junior high school” are schools that span grades seventh and eighth. It sometimes also includes sixth or ninth and very occasionally fifth grades as well. The range defined by either is often based on demographic factors, such as an increase or decrease in the relative numbers of younger or older students, with the aim of maintaining stable school populations. At this time, students are given more independence, moving to different classrooms for different subjects, which includes math, social studies, science, and language arts. Also, students are able to choose some of their class subjects (electives). Usually, starting in ninth grade, grades become part of a student’s official transcript. In the U.S., children within this grade-range are sometimes referred to as junior highers.